Internet and IP Addresses
What is a protocol?
- Protocol is the set of rules that all users of the internet agree to follow in order to communicate between machines.
What is an Internet Protocol (IP) address?
- An IP address is a set of numbers unique to each computer or device on the internet. This address, similar to a mailing address, allows each computer to be communicated with and is part of the standard Internet Protocol, mandating every computer address.
How is it organized hierarchically?
- IP addresses are organized hierarchically to sort them into different categories. Most IP addresses have 4 parts, 8 bits each, and the different parts break it down by country, region, subnetwork, and specific device. This makes its easy to locate devices and communicate with them.
How many bits are in an IPv4 address?
- There are 32 bits to IPv4 addresses, 8 bits to each part of the address.
How many IPv4 addresses does that mean there are?
- There are 4 billion addresses, but because this is not enough for the number of devices now, we are in the transition to new addresses named IPv6. IPv4 was designed in 1973 and adopted in the 1980s so they did not accurately predict the number of devices that would be used.
What is the difference between IPv6 and IPv4?
- IPv6 uses 128 bits per address as compared to the 32 of IPv4. IPv6 can account for over 340 undecillion addresses, much more than the 4 billion that IPv4 provided.
Why do we need IPv6?
- Because IPv4 cannot account for all the devices connected to the internet, we need IPv6 to help account for all if them.
What is an IP packet?
- IP packets are pieces of information, that take different routes to get to the destination, and are reassembled to display the finished product. An example of this would be when someone uploads an image onto the internet, the image will be broken down into packets.
What is the difference between an IP address and an IP Packet?
- An IP address is the specific set of numbers to each device connected to the internet to helps group them by location. An IP packet is a piece of information being sent to a destination, along with other pieces of information although each may not be sent the same way, to be reconstructed into the whole again.
What is the purpose of the Domain Name System (DNS)?
- It associates names with specific IP address. The computer uses this system to look up domain names to get the address, which connects the device to the destination on the internet.